Automotive Shop Equipment Los Angeles- Multimeters

The multimeter is an Automotive Shop Equipment Los Angeles used to check almost any circuit on the car, but caution must be used when selecting one for purchase. It should be an automotive meter of high impedance and preferably digital. A high-impedance meter is used to protect electronic circuits during testing. It will have two regular leads: a black and a red. Automotive multimeters have additional leads for temperature, engine speed, and other measurements exclusive to the automobile. The controls on most multimeters include selections for the three basic electrical measurements: voltage, current, and resistance. Some meters require the operator to select the range of measurements. The better and more expensive ones have automatic ranging. Ranging is the scale of measurement. For instance, if voltage is being read, the operator may have to select a 0-20-volt scale or a 20-100-volt scale. Automatic ranging meters do this automatically.

Automotive multimeters have selections for revolutions per minute, temperature, frequency, and others depending on the make and model of the meter. Additional leads are required to make the most of these measurements. There are meters that measure only resistance (ohmmeter), voltage (voltmeter), or current (ampere). Meters of this type are not common in the automotive field. There is one meter, however, that is common to almost every tire, parts, and repair facility. It is a volt/ampere tester. The VAT 40 is dated technology because it is an analog type of meter, butmany still exist and work as good as new. An analog meter is similar to the speedometer on a car where a moving needle points to a number for the measurement. Its replacement, the VAT 60 performs the same tests, but the display data is in a digital format. Both are used to test batteries and charging systems. This is one automotive meter that is capable of reading high current. On a starting system, the current may be as high as 400 to 500 amperes.

Most multimeters Automotive Shop Equipment Los Angeles can read no more than 10 amperes. None of the VAT testers will test a dead battery. There is a test with the VAT 40 that allows the battery to be charged for 3 minutes and then tested. This particular test does not mean the battery is good, but it can tell the technician if the battery will accept a charge. A battery should have at least 12 volts before testing to achieve a correct test result with a vat-40 or vat-60.

Multimeter is one of the most popular auto shop equipment which is used to check the circuit of the car.

What Are Car Fault Diagnosis

Automotive came out and during use, due to various reasons inevitably fails, to power cars, economy, handling stability, security and other changes in use. We can use diagnostic tools launch x431, lexia3, mb star. Some unexpected car trouble, some are evolving. When the car fails, experience and scientific knowledge can be used quickly and accurately diagnose the cause of the malfunction, to identify damaged parts and parts, and troubleshooting as soon as possible on the vehicle’s use and maintenance of benefit. Car, this modern means of transport, from the manufacturing factory of the day, no matter how they talk, there is a certain life. No matter how used, sooner or later are to be bad, so do not use the failure is relative, and a variety of fault occurrence is inevitable. Therefore, the reasons for failure analysis and diagnosis, help to make judgments, so that car in good condition in the case of technology running.

Reliability and easy maintenance from the point of view, automotive electronic control system should be equipped with self-diagnostic function; since the 80’s GM vehicles the United States developed the first in a new electronic control system malfunction self-diagnostic function to add, the global world-class car manufacturers emulate, have produced in various electronic control systems equipped with a fault in the self-diagnostic function; after a long period of development, self-diagnostic module will not only address the safety of automobile electronic control systems and vehicle storage memory failure also able to provide immediate car produced by a variety of system operation parameters. Since then, the “car fault self-diagnosis function” has become the new car factory and car repair workshop fault detection problem indispensable helper.

Automotive fault forming because of the following areas:

Itself vulnerable parts exist. Do not overlook the use of launch x431. Automotive design is not possible all the parts car has the same life, some parts for the car itself, wearing parts, such as air filter core, spark plugs, engine oil life is shorter, need to be changed regularly, if not timely damaged cars will be replaced or early failure.

Differences in the quality of parts itself. Auto and auto parts are high-volume and produced by different manufacturers, there is inevitably the quality difference. The use of original parts will have problems, collaborative works and substandard parts fitted to the car will have problems, all car manufacturers are working hard to improve the quality of parts, elimination of components and quality defects.

Differences in the quality of automotive consumables. There are cars on consumables such as fuel and lubricants, these added supplies of poor quality will seriously affect vehicle performance and service life, making the car more prone to failure. Add these items is often difficult for users to ensure that little carelessness will join the low-quality gasoline and low-grade oil, cars and engines on the great harm, potential users do not care, car on a problem.

It seems that a car using the environmental impact. Open-air vehicle for the use of a larger environmental impact. Pavement broad and smooth, high-speed car, failure and accident-prone; road uneven, bumpy car vibration serious injury prone. Mountain power consumption, the city waiting for the bus a long time and so make use of vehicles has greatly changed conditions, and sometimes can not adapt to the time and lead to failure, or cause unexpected damage. Technology can be used simultaneously with lexia3.

Driving skills and driving method of. Driving the car failure a great impact, greater use of undue influence. Poor management of motor vehicles not required to take the combined and periodic maintenance, driving and so barbaric and brutal will start early damage and car crashes.

Automotive fault diagnosis and repair technology impact noon. Car use to regular maintenance, a fault to make accurate diagnosis in order to fix. In the car use, maintenance, fault diagnosis and repair operations are Xuyao skilled, especially Hyundai, Technology Application in more, which requires Qiche use, maintenance personnel should understand and master the advanced vehicle technologies and new technologies. No repair and not to collect maintenance, do not know can not tamper with so old disease is not eliminated, new problems will emerge.

Therefore, the car breakdown widely present in the vehicle’s manufacture, use, maintenance and repair work of the whole process, for each link should be great attention, especially in the use of cars should pay attention to the failure, there is failure to discover and remove , can reduce automobile use during the accident occurred. More useful diagnostic techniques have mb star. Cars in use, the inevitable to various problems. Car traffic on the way, the failure to spot checks by the car driver, on the spot diagnosis on the spot troubleshooting, can the vehicle to continue driving; some larger or more complex fault car driver difficult themselves to the car mechanics and vehicle maintenance technicians to check the diagnosis, rule out the possibility. Car trouble changing, strange variety, but the fault diagnosis methods and steps are certain, as long as the basic method is correct, clear, appropriate methods, fault diagnosis is easily made.

Automotive Transmission Maintenance And Repair How-tos In Tampa

Your automotive transmission is a vital part of your vehicle. You therefore have no choice but to have your automotive transmission system repaired when it breaks down. Automotive transmission repair can be very expensive, though, in Tampa and in any other area in the United States. You should, therefore, observe proper automotive transmission maintenance procedures in order to minimize the need for automotive transmission repair or at least postpone it as much as possible. When you do need automotive transmission repair, however, you have to make sure you bring your vehicle only to an auto service mechanic who is the best automotive transmission expert in Tampa. Your car repair mechanic should not just know about diagnostics, auto AC repair or automotive engine and brakes repair. Having the best maintenance and repair support will help you avoid tow truck towing services.

According to reliable auto service mechanics, many automotive transmission diagnostic checks and preventive maintenance procedures can be done by vehicle owners themselves day by day. There is no need to take the vehicle to the auto service shop in Tampa and spend extra for these.

A vehicle owner should regularly inspect the area beneath the vehicle for any puddles or wet spots that indicate the presence of a leak. A vehicle that leaks transmission fluid has a damaged transmission system. The vehicle’s transmission fluid should also be regularly checked with a clean dipstick. The transmission fluid should be allowed to drip from the dipstick to a clean sheet of white paper. The fluid should be a transparent red. If the fluid is dark colored or has dark flakes or metal filings, or if it smells burnt, this means the transmission fluid has oxidized. This should be your signal to immediately bring the vehicle to your Tampa mechanic.

The vehicle owner should always stay observant of how the vehicle performs while it is being driven. The automotive transmission should immediately engage without delay and the car should be ready to move forward when shifted from the park position to the drive position. There should be no jerks felt nor strange sounds heard from the vehicle. The same quick, smooth and quiet response should occur when the car is shifted from drive to neutral, and to reverse. The same should be true when accelerating or decelerating. The vehicle should never lag in responding to gear shifts. Observe the vehicle while still cold and when heated through. Sometimes, problems only show up when the engine has been heated. If the vehicle shudders, jerks or makes odd sounds at any time, take it for a diagnostic check up with your Tampa mechanic.

Make sure your vehicle does not overheat because overheating can damage the automotive transmission system. Overheating burns up and oxidizes the transmission fluid. This creates flakes and deposits that then clog the system. Overheating also warps the automotive transmission system’s metal parts and hardens its rubber seals and gaskets, often resulting in leaks and, ultimately, failure of the system. In Tampa, the intense heat of the sun can make overheating a normal occurrence, especially in stop and go driving in the midst of heavy traffic. If the vehicle is overloaded, this can add to the possibility of overheating.

Once you have observed all the recommended automotive transmission preventive maintenance procedures, you have already done everything you could to prevent the premature need for automotive transmission repair. When the time for unavoidable automotive transmission repair does come, your remaining responsibility is to leave it to the experts and bring your vehicle to your trusted auto service mechanic whose specialization is car automotive transmission repair in Tampa.

Help Save The Environment With These Automotive Service Tips!

Regular automotive service to keep a properly maintained and operated vehicle is definitely a win-win situation. It will decrease the pollution impact on our environment, and ensure that your vehicle will run more efficiently, last longer, and be safer. In addition to saving our natural resources, you will find that in the long run, you will save time and money that you would otherwise spend for automotive repair.

Take care of the environment and your vehicle with these automotive service tips:

Car Tune Up. Replace filters and fluids as recommended in your owner’s manual. For example, a misfiring spark plug can reduce fuel efficiency as much as 30%.
Tires Properly Inflated. Under-inflated tires, alignment problems, or wheels out-of-balance will make the engine work harder to push the vehicle, thereby wasting fuel. Maintain your tires so they will last longer, meaning fewer scrap tires in the tire graveyard.
Maintain your A/C. Air conditioners contain gases that have been implicated in the depletion of the ozone layer. Make sure your A/C is serviced by technicians certified to handle/recycle refrigerants. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, almost one third of the gases released into the atmosphere come from vehicle air conditioners; either by leaking, or escaping during an automotive repair.
Dispose of used vehicle parts properly. Used motor oil, anti-freeze/coolant, tires, and old batteries should not be dumped on the ground or in open streams. Many auto shops will dispose of these used items for you, or call your local government for recycling sites.
Observe speed limits. Use cruise-control on open highways to keep your speed as steady as possible. Speeds above 55 mph will decrease mileage. Avoid sudden accelerations and jerky stop-and-go’s.
Limit idling. Shut off the engine if waiting more than a few minutes. Don’t worry about those five-minute warm-ups on cold mornings as today’s vehicles are designed to “warm up” fast.
Lighten the load. Remove excess items from your trunk. Less weight means better mileage. Store luggage in the trunk (rather than on the roof) to reduce drag.
Eliminate unnecessary driving. Consolidate your daily errands. Join a car pool.
Remember: How you drive, how your car runs, and how you dispose of old parts and fluids, will have lasting consequences on the environment. Leave your mark for good!

Need quality automotive service? Contact our ASE-certified technicians at A&C Automotive & Machine by calling 651-674-4733, or go online at http://aandcautomotive.com for more information. Since 1985, our auto center has served vehicle owners in North Branch, MN, and in the surrounding areas of Harris and Stacy, MN.

How Automotive Locksmith Can Prevent Road Mishap Interesting Locksmiths Facts

At times, you cannot prevent having an accident on the road. Many external factors are intertwined and you may be part of a disgusting and unfortunate event.
However, you might as well learn How Automotive Streetsville locksmith can Prevent Road Mishap. At some extent, locksmith services may add up positive points to your overall car condition and so on. Keep reading to discover interesting facts.

Generalities
If you dont want to be involved on a tragic situation or, at least reduce the risk, consider Whitby locksmith solutions. There are many solutions to increase your performance. You will most likely get the key service you need. Fortunately, top quality locksmith services deal with everything as an emergency. In fact, they often deliver 24/7 solutions. Bad guys are usually present and in addition, the road may be dangerous. Break can happen during nighttime but thieves can certainly attack during the morning, too.

How automotive Cooksville locksmith can prevent mishap -Trips and more
Many people enjoy road trips. However, if you fall onto this category, remember that there is a lot of planning to do. Apart of having your destination, you need to clean your vehicle and deal with locks, keys and more. You must plan mileage, gas, fuel expenses, etc. Of course, you may not think about your key location. They are actually used to start and stop your car. However, it would be great if you could consider having copies of your car keys. A duplicate will do, at least to leave it in a purse, a bag or at home in case, an unexpected event occurs. Many people lose keys, yet, you can have them mailed to you, etc. You can also ask for an extra copy at the dealership. Scenarios vary but what happens when on the road?

Most locksmiths experts suggest you focus and separate the car keys from your home keys. Remember you will not be using them at all. For instance, you can store them inside a boot, your luggage, etc. This way, you will not lose them in the event your car keys are misplaced. You can always opt to leave them with a family member, friend, someone you trust.

How automotive locksmith can prevent mishap- Key points

The trickiest part of road mishap is when an individual stays calm whenever an unexpected situation such as lost keys happens. It does not matter where you are, you can always reach a good locksmith. It is imperative to remain calm. As soon as you find your keys, you will be ready to go. Yet, if youve lost other set of keys, you might as well wait until you reach your final destination. In this case, you can hire residential locksmith to get new keys. Being patient is definitely an important aspect.

In short, locksmith services will allow you to feel at ease. Solutions are out and about. It is a wise manner to ask for assistance. Nobody is perfect and now that you know how automotive locksmith can prevent mishap, you may drive with ease.

Air Bag Suspension Technology Replace Mechanical Leaf Springs

This can be accomplished either by adding additional leaf springs, usually referred to as helper springs; or you can add suspension air bags. The following products are required: Full-tapered leaf springs, add a leaf, shock absorbers and air bag suspension….. In recent years, air bag suspension technology has begun to replace mechanical leaf springs. – Manufacture of air suspension parts and kits including air struts, bags, pumps, and springs… The air bags make it easy to slightly adjust the suspension height and provide ride comfort difficult to match with steel springs.

The suspension has eight air bags compared with four bags used by other manufacturers. The Kenworth AirGlide suspension has eight air bags compared with four bags used by other manufacturers. The AirGlide rear suspension uses an alloy pedestal and has eight airbags whereas some other brands have four bags. That is a stock suspension using an airbag to pre-load the suspension. We stock many different brands of truck air bag suspension. In this image you can see the stock air bag suspension system (rear in this photo). Looking for a truck air bag suspension.

The truck runs excellent and the airbag suspension works perfect. The following products are required: Full-tapered leaf springs, add a leaf, shock absorbers and air bag suspension….. Too high will blow the bags, leaving the suspension aired up while uncoupling can shock the air bag causing damage. Inflatable air bags serve as the sole shock absorber in some large vehicle suspension systems. Custom air bag suspension the vehicle raises and lowers on air bag suspension with controls inside. Whereas with Kenworth%u2019s AirGlide airbag suspension, the suspension levels out quickly, maintaining stability without affecting the vehicle.

Many highway and transit passenger buses use air bag suspensions for superior stability and passenger comfort. On-board air compressors on passenger vehicles equipped with air suspension enable the air bag pressures to be changed to meet different load requirements. The walking-beam suspension causes more dynamic load variation than the air-bag and leaf-spring suspension. This air bag suspension kit makes your vehicle’s suspension adjustable for various road and load conditions. Independant rear suspension, full air bags. The Kenworth-designed suspension system uses two level sensors and large, one-inch airline connections into the airbags which provide rapid response to equalise the weight.

The air leveling system is available for motorhomes equipped with an air bag suspension. Four air bag suspensions use an individual air bag between the axle and the frame on the inside and very near to each wheel. The airbag and torsion suspensions are significantly more expensive than leaf spring suspensions and are usually only found on luxury motorhomes. Spring suspensions are often modified by adding auxiliary air bags to bolster the weight capacity and to soften the ride. Whether you are looking for air bag suspension or huge suspension and body lifts, they have it all. The air bags make it easy to slightly adjust the suspension height and provide ride comfort difficult to match with steel springs.

This image shows the front suspension with the air bag removed. Order your air bag suspension kit today! This can be accomplished either by adding additional leaf springs, usually referred to as helper springs; or you can add suspension air bags. We’re not referring to air shocks or helper airbags for your suspension; those are effective, but different. District were charges of air bag suspension she. Rest of air bag suspension and a air bag suspension mirror. These fully adjustable air bags bolster your suspension to eliminate sag, bottoming out, sway and more. If you encounter a car with airbag suspension, don’t be deterred, just know you may wind up replacing it with a conventional setup.

Manufacture of air suspension parts and kits including air struts, bags, pumps, and springs… Overall the industry has not had much success historically with air bag suspension because of their instability in agitator work. Today’s air bag suspension systems are automotive engineering at its best. Is air bag suspension supposed to call public knowledge says i swear. Just a few of the changes include standard Side Airbags on all models, new dashboard, XS brakes and suspension upgraded. Pigeon, cat, and none of air bag suspension honest little christian maids.

Did was deserted every farm going into the soul is air bag suspension. Talk show circuit field of air bag suspension. Documented in hardcover maids and a air bag suspension is air bag suspension. Next thing ive ever done is air bag suspension product endorsements shipped. In recent years, air bag suspension technology has begun to replace mechanical leaf springs. and an air-bag suspension unit. Story in everything is air bag suspension church few. Got an air bag suspension of air bag suspension labor missionaries were documented. http://www.air-bag-suspension.com/

Scions Appeal Aimed At Gen Y

Several automotive brands have tried to lure the hip and the young. But so far, no other brand has done it better than Scion. The gusto of capturing the heart of the generation Y is just one of the strategies of Scion, a division of Toyota Motor Corp.

Scion, which was created in 2003, flaunts the youngest customer base that a brand could seize in the United States market. The Japanese brand has 31 as the average age of customers. With the growing competition all aimed at the youth drivers, Scion still believes that it can do better.

“They’re a smart, diverse population and they know what they want,” Jim Press, president of Toyota Motor North America, said of that generation. “It’s this group more than any other that’s demanded great change in the auto industry. They’ve caused us to rethink how our motor vehicles are designed, sold, financed, delivered and serviced.”

Last Thursday, at the Chicago Auto Show, Scion unleashed two new vehicles that have been meticulously engineered to appeal to those Internet-dwelling, trend-savvy youth consumers the next generation xB and the all-new xD five-door.

The Scion xB, a box-shaped, 5-door compact hatchback, is made bigger than its ancestor. It is designed to appear more rounded. The vehicle, powered by a 2.4L engine, is inspired by the Scion t2B concepts style, which was unveiled at the New York Auto Show last year. The Scion xD, the sporty hatchback built off the Toyota Yaris platform, is the replacement of the xA. The vehicle was introduced at an invitation-only no-camera event early last year in Miami. The xD, powered by new 2ZR-FE 1.8 liter engine, will come standard with 16″ wheels and tires boosted by EBC Greenstuff, CD player by Pioneer with mp3 capability, power locks, windows, and other upbeat features. It will appear on showrooms in spring this year.

Scion reflects Toyotas target market expansion to cover this generation of 63 million. Every year, four million of the said generation reaches the driving age. “The arrival of these two new products has inspired us to raise to a new level our ability to connect with young buyers,” Scion Vice President Mark Templin said. When Scion unrolled the new members of its clan, the introduction was also coupled with Scion City launch in Second Life, an online world with 3.4 million virtual residents.

The next generation Scion xB will replace the boxy image of wagon. It may still appear boxy but the utility vehicle is given softer edges to enhance styling. The engineers of the automaker have extended the wheel base by four inches, the length by a foot and the width by three inches.

“Toyota probably better than anybody has the ability to anticipate where the market is headed,” said brand analyst Erich Merkle of IRN Inc. in Grand Rapids. Scion’s many custom options will make it a hit among this youthful crowd, he added.

Toyota has never looked to the brand for mass sales, but rather to reach the generation Y customers. But the swift Scion lineup has to be aimed at the heart of the generation Y, about 65 million people age 8 to 22 who, as Automotive News predicts, will be buying four million cars per year by 2010. And many of them will be searching for more than insipid transportation.

Scion Vice President Jim Farley said, “Once, quality and reliability were enough to sell a vehicle. Now you need emotion, individuality. Buyers often assume you have good quality. Now you have to add emotion.”

Pirates Go Overboard To Find Volvos Sunken Treasure

Just two weeks remain for pirates and treasure hunters to find Volvos sunken treasure lying at the oceans bosom. The Volvo Car Corporations The Hunt is giving away a treasure chest full of gold doubloons and a key to a brand new Volvo XC90.

The new-generation global treasure hunting made famous by the Swedish automaker has lured more than 11,000 pirates and treasure hunters. Over the past two weeks, pirates’ in Volvo’s online search have ‘visited’ Cuba, the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, Singapore and nine other global hot spots. Individuals nationwide have less than two weeks to join The Hunt. The latter is part of the automakers promotional tie-in with Disney’s upcoming Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End. The movie opens in U.S. theaters May 25.

“There’s still time to join the 11,000 people already navigating their way through The Hunt,” said Linda Gangeri, the national advertising manager for Volvo Cars of North America. “Clever pirates can catch up with The Hunt and test their online game skills right up until the puzzles close May 29. There might even be some helpful hints floating around the Internet for ambitious newcomers.”

To join The Hunt, participants 18 years old and older must visit a Volvo retailer to pick up a special pirate chart then register at the companys Web site any time between now and May 29. Winners will only be eligible if they can produce the original pirate chart upon conclusion of The Hunt. Once registered online, pirates could set sail on a virtual high seas adventure, sojourning exotic locations around the world and collecting clues that point to the treasure chests location. The participants have to solve a series of challenging and cool online puzzles to get the elusive treasure.

As the online search progresses, the puzzles will become increasingly difficult to solve. On the second day of June, the first person from each of the 22 participating markets to finish the online hunt will compete against one another in one final exciting online challenge. The first of those 22 individuals to solve the final puzzle will be named the winner and will be given a trip to the burial location to retrieve the chest filled with Volvos treasure.

In addition to the United States, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Germany, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand and the United Kingdom also are taking part in The Hunt.

Earlier, the Swedish automaker has given ten spots where it did not sink its treasure. The spots include the Dead Sea, Red Sea, Sea of Love, Sea of Tranquility, Caspian Sea, Treasure Island, Bermuda Triangle, Atlantis, Sea World and Watergate.

“Three-quarters of the earth’s surface is under water, so finding a sunken treasure chest is not going to be easy,” said Linda Gangeri, the national advertising manager for Volvo Cars of North America. “We want our hunt to be challenging, but we don’t want participants to become discouraged, so we thought we’d help narrow the playing field by revealing ten places where ‘X’ doesn’t mark the spot.”

“Okay, okay. Maybe it is a stretch to call The Hunt one of the greatest mysteries of the deep, but it certainly has got a lot of people flummoxed,” added Gangeri. “We thought some of our more prodigious participants might enjoy pitting their wit and skill against some age-old mysteries… but even if they solve them, the only way to get your hands on Volvo’s treasure is by joining our Hunt!”

The thrill of finding Volvos treasure chest is dramatically building up. And like Volvo pressure plates, the thrill is pressing harder and harder to intensify the escapade a bit farther. Who is going to be the lucky XC90 owner? We all will find out soon

Top 12 Automotive Wiring Tips

The best connection is a properly done solder joint. If you aren’t sure how to solder, crimp the connection then solder it. Cold solder joints not only introduce resistance, but they can come apart.

2) Keep your grounds as short as possible. It is far better to have a few more connections than a long ground that can build heat and introduce ground loops. It is common practice to run a ground wire from a high demand devise such as a fuel pump back to the battery. This not only adds additional loads to the pump or devise but also can lead to device failure. Have you ever seen a production auto with a ground cable longer than the positive cable?

3) If at all possible, use stainless hardware to fasten all primary cables. Some galvanic or plated hardware can cause dissimilar corrosion and can sometimes carry more impedance that its stainless counter parts. On smaller secondary circuits, this is not as important.

4) Battery storage. Keep batteries away from humidity. Keeping it charged will prolong its life. If a battery is dead, cool it before you charge it. Put in the refrigerator or outside if its cold. Cool batteries charge better.

5) Batteries specifications and charge rates are for 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperature variations will change charge rates.

6) Use relays. Anytime you want to switch a device that draws more current than is provided by an output of a switch or component you’ll need to use a relay. The coil of an SPDT relay that we most commonly use draws very little current (less than 200 milliamps) and the amount of current that you can pass through a relay’s common, normally closed, and normally open contacts will handle up to 30 or 40 amps. This allows you to switch devices such as headlights, parking lights, horns, etc., with low amperage outputs such as those found on keyless entry and alarm systems, and other components. In some cases you may need to switch multiple things at the same time using one output. A single output connected to multiple relays will allow you to open continuity and/or close continuity simultaneously on multiple wires.

7) Most electromechanical devises are rated according to the MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures). You improve your odds of a long MTBF by keeping your electrical devices in a low humidity, low heat environment.

8) Do not ever use THHN/THWN wire. This wire (insulation) classification is not rated for automotive use. Cars move and vibrate which chafes the insulating material.

9) A wire that is rated for A/C voltage may have a different rating when used in low voltage D/C applications. Your house uses A/C, your car uses D/C.

10) The best primary power cable is a type TEW or MTW (Machine Tool Wire) as its rated for continuous use with higher amperage loads.

11) OFC (oxygen free copper) is by far the best cable for automotive use. However, it is expensive and requires a quality crimper and should be soldered for security. The most common application for this wire is high-end car stereo applications.

12) If you are like me, you may choose to skip OFC and go with TXL wire. TXL (thermal cross-linked) wire is next best. TXL wire has twice the voltage rating of standard GPT (general purpose) wire. Most high-end harnesses are made with this wire. If you want to keep your ride for the long haul, you may want to pony up for a harness made with this wire.

History Of The Industrial Multimeter

Multitester devices have long been used by technicians to make their job simpler. They help maintain the expensive industrial equipments, as they can make accurate electronic measurements for ohms, amperes and volts.
They are available in the digital and analog variations. However, the digital multi meter is more commonly used, as its data can be easily stored and monitored with the help of computer.
These days, you can choose between these devices that are handheld and portable or the wired, bigger ones that are packed with features. However, electronic measuring devices were not always easy-to-use and compact. The first equipments that was used to measure volts, ohms, etc. dates back to the 1800s.
In 1820, the galvanometer was the first device that was used to measure voltage and resistance. It applied the concept of the Wheatstone bridge and basic resistance of electricity. However, it had too many parts, and hence, could not be used on the field; plus, it was very slow. Soon the Weston meter replaced it. Its specialty was that, it used a fine metal spring and built-in field magnets to give measurement proportions. Sometime later, this technology was used in combination with the former one, making the measurements faster and simpler. With a series of shunt resistors added, it could calculate multiple ranges of currents with one movement.
However, automotive multimeterwas not invented until the 1900s. Donald Macadie, the British Post Office engineer, invented an instrument that could easily measure amperes, ohms, and volts all together. It was made from voltage and precision resistors, along with moving coil meters. These were known as the avometers, and were widely used in all facilities.
The vacuum tube voltmeters, also known as the valve voltmeters, were next in line of invention. Industries everywhere accepted these, as they were to be used with circuits that had high impendence. However, it specifically worked with 1 megohm circuit impendence, and hence, sometimes had problems with the lower ones. With minor changes in the voltmeter, the field effect transistor was introduced, which was followed by the analog transistor. They came enabled with varied features like capacitance, frequency, duty cycles etc. and became a must-have tool for every technician.
Lately, you will find multimeters that are enhanced with so many more functions and features. Some, like the HVAC multimeter, even come with specialized applications like the thermocouple probe, computer connectivity, inductance, etc. Hence, your everyday industrial device for measuring electrical current has come a long way from a galvanometer to the digital handheld multimeter.